Thursday, July 30, 2015
I have been reading recently that the jock tax may be affecting where athletes decide to play. For example, Ndamukong Suh, an NFL defensive tackle formerly with the Detroit Lions, was wooed by the Oakland Raiders but opted instead to sign with the Miami Dolphins. I can understand a top-tier athlete not wanting to play for a team as dysfunctional as the Raiders, but one has to wonder whether that 13.3% top California tax rate was part of the decision. Florida of course has no income tax.
Let’s not feel sorry for Suh, however. His contract is worth approximately $114 million, with $60 million guaranteed.
So what is the jock tax?
Let’s say that you work in another state for a few days. You may ask whether that state will want to tax you for the days you work there. Some states tell you upfront that there is no tax unless you work there for a minimum number of days (say 10, for example). Other states say the same thing obliquely by not requiring withholding if you would not have a tax liability, requiring you (or your accountant) to reverse-engineer a tax return to figure out what that magic number is. And then there are … “those states,” the ones that will try to tax you just for landing at one of their airports.
Take the same concept, introduce a professional athlete, a stadium and a game and you have the jock tax.
It started in California. Travel back to 1991 when Michael Jordan led the Bulls to the NBA Finals. After the net was cut and the celebrations finished, Los Angeles contacted Jordan and informed him that he would have to pay taxes for the days that he spent there.
Illinois did not like the way California was treating their favorite son, so they in turn passed a law imposing income tax on athletes from other states if their state imposed a tax on an Illinois athlete. This law became known as “Michael Jordan’s Revenge.”
How do you allocate an athlete’s income to a given city or state? That is the essence of the jock tax and what makes it different from you or me working away from home for a week or so.
If we work a week in Illinois, our employer can carve-out 1/52 of our salary and tax it to Illinois. Granted, there may be issues with bonuses and so on, but the concept is workable.
But an athlete does not work that way. What are his/her work days: game days? Game and travel days? Game, travel, and practice days?
Let’s take football. There are the Sunday games, of course, but there are also team meetings, practice sessions, film study, promotional events, as well as minicamps and OTAs and so on. Let’s say that this works out to be 160 days. You are with Bengals and travel to Philadelphia for an away game. You spend two days there. Philadelphia would likely be eying 2/160 of your compensation.
This method is referred to as the “duty days” method.
Cleveland separated from the pack and wanted to tax players based on the number of games in the season. For example, the city tried to tax Chicago Bears linebacker Hunter Hillenmeyer based on the number of season games, which would be 20 (16 regular season and 4 preseason). Reducing the denominator makes Cleveland’s share larger (hence why Cleveland liked this method), but it ignores the fact that Hillenmeyer had duty days other than Sunday. What Cleveland wanted was a “games played” method, and it was shot down by the Ohio Supreme Court.
Cleveland also had an interesting twist on the “games played” method. It wanted to tax Indianapolis Colts center Jeff Saturday for a game in 2008. However, Saturday was injured and did not play in that game, making Cleveland’s stance hard to understand. In fact, Saturday was injured enough that he stayed in Indianapolis and did not travel with the team, now making Cleveland’s position impossible to understand. Sometimes bad law surfaces when pushed to its logical absurdity, and the Ohio Supreme Court told Cleveland to stop its nonsense.
Tennessee wrote its jock tax a bit differently. Since the state does not have an income tax (more accurately, it has an income tax on dividends and interest only) it could not do what California, Illinois and Ohio had done before. Tennessee instead charged a visiting athlete a flat rate, irrespective of his/her income. For example, if you were a visiting NBA player, it would cost $2,500 to play against the Memphis Grizzlies.
Tennessee also taxed NHL players (think Nashville Predators) but not NFL players (think Tennessee Titans).
I guess the NFL bargains better than the NHL or NBA.
One can understand the need to fund stadiums, but this tax is arbitrary and capricious. What about a non-athlete traveling with the team? That $2,500 may be more than he/she earned for the game.
Tennessee has since abolished this tax for NHL players but has delayed abolishment until June 1, 2016 for NBA players.
In other news, NFL players remain untaxed.
We have talked about the denominator of the fraction to be multiplied against an athlete’s compensation. Are you curious what goes into that compensation bucket?
Let’s answer this with a question: why do so many athletes chose to live in Texas or Florida? The athlete may have an apartment in the city where he/she plays, but his/her main home (and family) is in Dallas, Nashville or Miami.
Let’s say the athlete receives a signing bonus. There is an extremely good argument that the bonus is not subject to the jock tax, as it is not contingent upon future performance by the athlete. The bonus is earned upon signing; hence its situs for state taxation should be tested at the moment of signing. Tax practitioners refer to this as “non-apportionable” income, and it generally defaults to taxation by the state of residence. Take residence in a state with no income tax (hello Florida), and the signing bonus escapes state tax.
Consider Suh and the Miami Dolphins. California’s cut of his $60 million signing bonus would have been almost $8 million. Florida’s cut is zero.
What would you do for $8 million?
Thursday, July 23, 2015
Did you see where Don McLean sold his original manuscript for “American Pie” at Christie’s? He sold the work for $1.2 million, and it included his handwritten notes and deletions from the 1971-72 hit that – at 8 ½ minutes – was the longest song to ever top the U.S. charts.
The song of course is famous for its allusions. The “day the music died” refers to the death of Buddy Holly, whereas “the king” supposedly refers to Elvis Presley while “the jester on the sidelines” refers to Bob Dylan after his motorcycle accident. It became an anthem to disillusionment, to the sense of our best days being behind us and the ennui and hopelessness of a society being carted off in the wrong direction.
Sounds eerily contemporary.
He explained that he had forgotten he had the manuscript. He found it in the proverbial old box that had survived several moves. The sale allowed him to provide for his family, now and into the future.
Yes, $1.2 million will do that.
So what are the tax consequences from the sale of his manuscript?
We are talking about intellectual property and a subset we will call creative properties.
For the most part, self-created properties cannot be a capital asset in the hands of its creator. This causes a problem, as one requires a capital asset if one wants capital gains.
Take it a step further. If someone else owns the asset but its tax basis (that is, its cost for purposes of calculating gain or loss) is determined by reference to the creator’s basis, then it cannot be a capital asset. How can this happen? Easy. You could gift the property, for example, or you could contribute the property to a family limited partnership. In either case the recipient will “take over” your basis in the creative property. Since the basis remains the same, it cannot be a capital asset.
The vocabulary gets tricky when discussing creative property. For example, an author (say Stephen King) may receive a “royalty.” Coincidently, find oil in your backyard and chances are an oil company will also pay you a royalty. Since the word “royalty” is the same, are the tax consequences the same?
The answer is no. If you write a book or score a movie soundtrack, that royalty is probably ordinary income to you. In fact, it is reported on Schedule C of your individual tax return, the same as your self-employment income from Uber. The oil royalty, on the other hand, is reported on Schedule E, along with rents. The Schedule C royalty will trigger self-employment tax. The Schedule E will not.
OBSERVATION: We have discussed before that sometimes a word will have different meanings as it travels through the tax Code. Here is an example.
As always, there are exceptions. Let’s say you write one book and never write again. The IRS will likely consider that to be ordinary income but not self-employment income. Why? Supposedly it takes two or more books to establish that you are in the trade or business of writing books.
OBSERVATION: I am curious how the IRS would apply this standard to Harper Lee. She published, you will recall, To Kill a Mockingbird in 1960. It was only this year that she published her second work (Go Set a Watchman) – 55 years later. What do you think: is this self-employment income or not?
Remember when Michael Jackson bought the catalog of Beatles music? He bought it as a non-alternative investment, akin to stocks and bonds. Like a stock or bond, Michael Jackson would have had capital gains had he sold the catalog.
This created a fuss among songwriters. If they sold their own compositions, they would have ordinary and self-employment income. Introduce Michael Jackson and the tax result transmuted to capital gains.
So Congress passed Section 1221(b)(3), which incorporated a provision from the Songwriter’s Capital Gains Equity Act, promoted by the Nashville Songwriters Association International (NASI). It extended capital gains to self-created music owned for more than one year. It requires an election, and the songwriter/creative can elect for one musical composition and not for another. It does require the transfer of a musical composition or a copyright in the same; transfer something less and the result defaults to ordinary income.
NASI argued that the industry had changed. By the 1990s many music artists were acting as their own publishers or co-publishers, meaning they had some control over the exploitation of their songs. Gone were the days of Hank Williams and Bill Monroe, when songwriters sold their songs outright to music publishers with no right to ongoing income.
Don McLean now has a tax option that he did not have years ago when he recorded “American Pie.” I suppose that there could be a scenario where it would be more advantageous to recognize the $1.2 million as ordinary income rather than as capital gains, but I cannot easily think of any that do not require low-probability tax considerations.
I would say he is making the election.
Friday, July 17, 2015
Twice a year the National Taxpayer Advocate submits a report to Congress. The Advocate is required to submit these without prior review by the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service, the Secretary of the Treasury or the Office of Management and Budget. A report was issued June 30, and it identified the objectives of the Advocate’s office for the upcoming fiscal year.
The National Taxpayer Advocate is Nina E. Olson. We have spoken of her before, and I am a fan.
The following caught my eye:
The most serious problem facing U.S. taxpayers is the declining quality of service provided to them by the IRS when they seek to comply with their tax filing and payment obligations."
Given that this is a co-equal reason for the IRS to exist (the other being to collect revenue), this is a rather serious charge.
Consider the following:
· The IRS hung up on approximately 8.8 million taxpayers during this year’s filing season. The IRS dryly refers to these as “courtesy disconnects,” ostensibly as proof that they too have read Orwell’s 1984.
o This number was up from 544,000 hang-ups during the 2014 filing season.
· Only 37% of people using toll-free lines were able to speak with a human being.
o Down from 71% last year.
· The IRS has announced that it will no longer answer any tax law questions at all.
· The IRS will eliminate tax preparation altogether.
o It used to maintain approximately 400 walk-in sites and helped taxpayers prepare around 500,000 tax returns annually.
· The IRS answered only 17% of the calls from people whose account was blocked on suspicion of identity theft.
· Don’t expect that hiring a tax professional will resolve the logjam. Professionals were able get through less than 50% of the time.
From the perspective of a practicing tax CPA, I found interacting with the IRS this filing season to be unpleasant, if not futile. I find myself with divided opinions: many of the examiners and officers I have met and worked with over the years are responsible and likeable enough. Gather them together however and you have an organization that has lost the trust and confidence of a sizeable number of taxpaying citizens.
Ms. Olson does point out that the IRS has been charged with additional tasks in recent years, such as pursuing foreign assets (FATCA) and "assisting" the American public with their health insurance (ObamaCare). There has simultaneously been a reduction in agency funding.The GAO has reported that IRS funding declined approximately $900 million since fiscal year 2010, for example, resulting in the elimination of approximately 10,000 full-time equivalent positions.
Let’s be frank: under this Congress there will not be – nor should there be – additional funding for an agency that has been weaponized for political purposes. Paul Caron, a Pepperdine tax law professor, maintains a count and compendium of IRS misbehavior at TaxProfBlog (http://taxprof.typepad.com/taxprof_blog/irs-scandal). He is perilously close to 800 days and will likely exceed that count by the time you read this. If smoke indicates fire, then someone must have burned down the warehouse district to generate that much smoke.
Is there a solution? Yes, but it will probably have to wait until November, 2016. But you already knew that.
Thursday, July 16, 2015
I had lunch recently with a friend who has been diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis. I learned about MS primarily through him, and the disease is frightening. He went on to explain the neural degeneration and the pain that it can – and does – cause. His doctors have prescribed any number of pain medicines, but sometimes - many times - he does not need the full power of those prescriptions. He needs more than an aspirin but much less than an opioid.
It appears that marijuana does work for pain management.
Granted, this can be a problem where we live, as marijuana is not legal in either Kentucky or Ohio.
Over twenty states permit the medical use of marijuana, and four permit its recreational use. The problem arises from its status as a Schedule I controlled substance, meaning that it is illegal under federal law. I doubt too many tax CPAs get involved with businesses selling illegal products, and those that do are probably not in public practice.
The White House has encouraged the Justice Department not to prosecute marijuana distributors who comply with state law. Granted, the next White House may change course on this matter, but for the moment there is temporary stability.
I have no idea how a state Board of Accountancy would react.
Remember that the tax Code is federal tax law. It also contains Code section 280E, which was passed in 1982, 14 years before California became the first state to legalize medical marijuana.
Let’s look at this polished pearl of prose.
Sec 280E Expenditures in connection with the illegal sale of drugs
No deduction or credit shall be allowed for any amount paid or incurred during the taxable year in carrying on any trade or business if such trade or business (or the activities which comprise such trade or business) consists of trafficking in controlled substances (within the meaning of schedule I and II of the Controlled Substances Act) which is prohibited by Federal law or the law of any State in which the trade or business is conducted.
This section was created in response to the 1981 Edmonson case, in which the Tax Court allowed a seller of amphetamines, cocaine and marijuana to deduct expenses. The decision did not go over well.
So Congress responded with “no deduction or credit shall be allowed” on public policy grounds.
However that language does not mean what it first appears to say.
Section 280E does allow a cost-of-goods-sold deduction. The reason goes back to accounting theory. Let’s say that you sell Supreme Court clown hats. You sell a million of them for $5 each. You have to have them manufactured, which you outsource and pay $3 each. Let’s step into a tax accounting class and the professor asks you: what is your income?
· Is it 1 million times $5 = $5 million
· Or is it 1 million times ($5 - $3) = $2 million
The answer is $2 million, as you get to deduct the cost of a product when your business involves selling a product.
And the Tax Court agreed in the Olive case.
Following Olive, we know that we can deduct the cost of the marijuana from the revenues received from selling marijuana. What about everything else: payroll, rent, lights, cell phone, computers and software, stationary, and so forth?
Now we run full-face into Section 280E. There is no deduction.
That has to hurt come April 15th.
Surely the tax accountants can do something, right?
Yes, up to a point.
Remember that we said that you are allowed to deduct the cost of a product when your business involves selling a product? Another word for product is inventory, and there are things an accountant can do to tack some of those otherwise nondeductible expenses onto the inventory. You would then deduct those expenses as cost of goods sold when the product sells. I suspect you will still be leaving most of those expenses on the floor, but it is something.
More useful is to have another line of business that does not involve the sale of marijuana. Let’s say that one sets up a caregiving activity involving marijuana, providing support groups, lunches, counseling, social events and so on. As long as the primary business is not the sale of marijuana, the accountant could shift expenses (within reason; be fair) to that activity and sidestep the Section 280E disallowance. This was the Californians Helping to Alleviate Medical Problems (CHAMP) case, and it received the Tax Court’s approval. Introduce creative minds and I am certain there are a thousand variations on the theme.
There is a San Francisco marijuana business (Canna Care) that has taken Section 280E to Tax Court. In their case it means a $2.6 million deduction. They do not have a CHAMP fact pattern but are instead arguing that the disallowance is punitive and hence unconstitutional.
There has been no decision as of this writing, but I would not be optimistic.
Why? The Ninth Circuit very recently decided on the appeal of Olive mentioned above. Martin Olive operates the Vapor Room, a medical marijuana dispensary in California. In addition to selling marijuana, it offers a number of services as well as food – both for free. It made a CHAMP argument, wanting to allocate expenses between the two lines of business.
The Ninth Circuit said no, basing its decision primarily on the “free” part of the food and services. To allocate expenses to two or more trades or businesses, one must in fact be in business. There is no hope of a profit when the activity is giving things away for free, so that activity cannot rise to the level of a trade or business.
But the Ninth Circuit also slapped down Olive’s direct challenge to Section 280E, saying the tax disallowance is not based on marijuana being legal or illegal. Rather the disallowance is based on marijuana being a controlled substance, which it is and continues to be.
And there you have the federal taxation of marijuana in a nutshell.
It appears that the 1982 Section 280E addition to the tax Code is a bit out-of-step with contemporary society. Perhaps Congress could change one word:
… which is prohibited by Federal law AND the law of any State in which such trade or business is conducted”.
And no, I don’t want any credit for the suggestion. I am more of a bourbon fan myself.