Friday, December 19, 2014

Spotting A (Tax) Dependent

Let’s talk about claiming someone as a dependent.

There are several tax “breaks” that require you to have a dependent, for example:

·        Head of household (HoH) filing status
·        A dependent exemption
·        Child credit
·        Child care credit
·        Education credit
·        Earned income credit

Some of these breaks go only so far. The head of household (HoH) filing status, for example, can get you to zero tax, but it cannot “create” a tax refund. You have to have tax withholdings before HoH can get you a refund; even then, you are getting your own money back. Not so with the child credit or the earned income credit, however.  Meet all the triggers and the EIC can refund you over $6,000, irrespective of whether you have any withholdings or not. It is a transfer payment from the government.

So what is required to claim someone as a tax dependent?

There are two overall categories of dependents. The first is your own child (or stepchild, adopted child, or descendants of the same) and is referred to as a “qualifying child.” This is the workhorse test: think a child at home with his/her parents.

There are five requirements for a “qualifying child”:
  1. Are they related to you? 
  2. Are they under age 19 or – if a full-time student – under age 24? 
  3. Do they live with you for more than half the year?
  4. Do you support them financially? 
  5. Are you the only person claiming the child?
Any other type of dependent is a referred to as a “qualifying relative.” The requirements are as follows:
  1. Do they live with you for more than half the year?
  2. Do they make less than $3,950?
  3. Do you support them financially?
  4. Are you the only person claiming the child?
The term “qualifying relative” is misleading, by the way. The person does not need to be related to you at all. For example, a girlfriend could be my dependent – assuming that all the other requirements were met AND my wife allowed me to have a girlfriend.

Did you notice the age thing? A qualifying child ends at age 24 (unless we are talking permanent disability, which is a different rule). Past age 23 and the child is your dependent under the qualifying relative rules.

Which also means that an income test kicks-in. That after-age-23 child would not qualify as a dependent if he/she earned more than $3,950 for the year. This can be a cruel surprise at tax time for parents whose kids have moved back.

That answer, by the way, is the same for an over-18-under-24 child who does not go on to college.

Let’s take a little quiz on dependents. We will use the Tax Court case of James Edward Roberts v Commissioner. Here are selected facts:
  1. In January, 2012 Roberts’ daughter became homeless. 
  2. She had two young kids. 
  3. She was pregnant with the third.
Roberts was a decent soul, and worked out a deal with a Ms. Moody, whereby he and the two children (very soon three) moved in with her. He agreed to pay 75% of the rent and utilities. He also agreed to pay 100% of the meals.

Then he did something unexpected. He wrote down the agreement, and both he and Ms. Moody signed and dated it.

Roberts and his (now three) grandchildren lived in the apartment from January until October, 2012. His daughter also lived there on-and-off. When she was not there, Ms. Moody helped take care of the kids.

When Roberts filed his 2012 tax return, he claimed the following:

(1)  Head of household
(2)  Dependent exemption for three grandchildren
(3)  Child credit
(4)  Earned income credit

The IRS bounced his return, and they wound up in Tax Court.

The IRS had an issue whether the kids were his dependents.

What do you think?

Let’s walk through it.

·        The kids are related (grandchildren) to Roberts. CHECK
·        The kids are young. CHECK
·        They lived with him from January through October, which is more than half the year. CHECK
·        He paid 75% of the rent and utilities and 100% of the food. Sounds to me like that would be over half the support for the kids. CHECK
·        The Court tells us that their mom did not claim them. CHECK

Seems that Roberts met all the requirements to claim the grandchildren as dependents for 2012. Why did the IRS press on this?

I don’t know, and the Court did not explain why. I can guess, though.

I see a person who…

·        moved
·        put three dependents on his return who were not there the prior year
·        was not living with the kids by the time the IRS contacted him
·        lived in an apartment with someone who (perhaps, who knows) might have been his girlfriend. This would raise the issue of who actually paid the expenses for rent, utilities and food – you know, the same expenses that Roberts needed to show that he supported the kids.

Roberts won his day in Court.

I suspect that written – and contemporaneously signed - agreement with Ms. Moody carried a lot of weight with the Court.

I allow that the IRS had cause to look at this return. After that, however, they should have left Mr. Roberts alone.  The IRS made a mistake on this one.

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